Angina is a type of chest pain caused by reduced blood flow to the heart muscle. Angina is a symptom of coronary artery disease. Angina is typically described as squeezing, pressure, heaviness, tightness or pain in your chest.
Angina, also called angina pectoris, can be a recurring problem or a sudden, acute health concern.

Angina is relatively common but can be hard to distinguish from other types of chest pain, such as the pain or discomfort of indigestion. If you have unexplained chest pain, seek medical attention right away.
Angina symptoms include:
-Chest pain or discomfort
-Pain in your arms, neck, jaw, shoulder or back accompanying chest pain
-Shortness of breath

The chest pain and discomfort common with angina may be described as pressure, squeezing, fullness or pain in the center of your chest. Some people with angina symptoms describe angina as feeling like a vise is squeezing their chest or feeling like a heavy weight has been placed on their chest. For others, it may feel like indigestion.
Video: Ischemia and Silent Ischemia


Myocardial ischemia occurs when blood flow to your heart muscle is decreased by a partial or complete blockage of your heart’s arteries (coronary arteries). The decrease in blood flow reduces your heart’s oxygen supply.
Some people who have myocardial ischemia don’t experience any signs or symptoms (silent ischemia).
When myocardial ischemia does cause signs and symptoms, they may include:
-Chest pressure or pain, typically on the left side of the body (angina pectoris)
-Neck or jaw pain
-Shoulder or arm pain
-A fast heartbeat
-Shortness of breath
-Nausea and vomiting

When to see a doctor?
If you have chest discomfort, especially if it’s accompanied by one or more of the other signs and symptoms listed above, seek medical care immediately. Call 911 or your local emergency number. If you don’t have access to emergency medical services, have someone drive you to the nearest hospital. Drive yourself only as a last resort, if there are absolutely no other options. Driving yourself puts you and others at risk if your condition suddenly worsens.


Ischemia is a condition where the flow of oxygen-rich blood to a part of the body is restricted. Cardiac ischemia refers to lack of blood flow and oxygen to the heart muscle. It occurs when an artery becomes narrowed or blocked for a short time, preventing oxygen-rich blood from reaching the heart. If ischemia is severe or lasts too long, it can cause a heart attack (myocardial infarction) and can lead to heart tissue death. In most cases, a temporary blood shortage to the heart causes the tremendous pain of angina pectoris. Patients with silent ischemia have pain-free ischemia. It is dangerous because it may cause a heart attack with no prior warning.
How Common is Silent Ischemia and Who is at Risk?
The American Heart Association estimates that 3 to 4 million Americans have episodes of silent ischemia. People who have had previous heart attacks or those who have diabetes are especially at risk for developing silent ischemia. Heart muscle disease (cardiomyopathy) caused by silent ischemia is among the more common causes of heart failure in the United States.
Major risk factors include:
• Previous heart attack
• Coronary artery disease
• Diabetes
• High blood pressure (hypertension)
• Cardiomyopathy
• Obesity
• Smoking
• Alcohol and drug abuse

Symptoms- Silent ischemia has no symptoms. Researchers have found that patients who have noticeable chest pain may also have episodes of silent ischemia.