FUTURE TREATMENTS FOR IMPOTENCE

Future treatments for erectile dysfunction focus on providing medications that are more effective, work rapidly, and have fewer, if any, side effects than currently available treatments. Currently there are five oral drugs available to treat ED — Cialis, Levitra, Stendra, Staxyn, and Viagra. A number of pharmaceutical companies are researching new treatments for ED, and many new options may be just around the corner. These include:
-Uprima: Uprima (apomorphine) comes in a tablet form that dissolves under the tongue. Uprima works by stimulating the brain chemical dopamine, which heightens sexual interest and sensations. Its major side effects are nausea and vomiting. Additionally, a small number of people passed out after taking Uprima. Therefore, its release in the U.S. is on hold. It is currently available in Europe. Clinical trials are also currently being conducted on a nasal spray form of this drug, which may cause less nausea.
-Topiglan: Still under investigation, a cream applied to the penis called topiglan uses the same drug (alprostadil) that is used in injection therapy and suppository therapy. If topiglan proves to be safe and effective, it is still not entirely clear which patients would benefit from its application and whether patients on injection and suppository therapy would no longer have to use these techniques.
-Melanocortin activators: These are drugs that appear to act through the central nervous system (for example, the brain). They have been shown in animal studies to produce an erection. Initial studies in humans suggest that the drug (PT-141) can be effective if given intranasally (through the nose) in men with mental rather than physical causes of ED and mild to moderate ED. Larger studies will be necessary to demonstrate the safety and overall effectiveness of these drugs.







-Gene therapy: This novel therapy would deliver genes that produce products or proteins that may not be functioning properly in the penile tissue of men with ED. Replacement of these proteins may result in improvement in erectile function. Experimental animal models have demonstrated improvement in erectile function with gene therapy. Human studies may also demonstrate success with this therapy. Gene therapy may take a long time for regulatory approval and public acceptance.

FIRST SIGNS OF PARKINSON’S

Parkinson’s disease symptoms and signs may vary from person to person. Early signs may be mild and may go unnoticed. Symptoms often begin on one side of your body and usually remain worse on that side, even after symptoms begin to affect both sides.
Parkinson’s signs and symptoms may include:
Tremor. Your tremor, or shaking, usually begins in a limb, often your hand or fingers. You may notice a back-and-forth rubbing of your thumb and forefinger known as a pill-rolling tremor. One characteristic of Parkinson’s disease is a tremor of your hand when it is relaxed (at rest).
Slowed movement (bradykinesia). Over time, Parkinson’s disease may reduce your ability to move and slow your movement, making simple tasks difficult and time-consuming. Your steps may become shorter when you walk, or you may find it difficult to get out of a chair. Also, you may drag your feet as you try to walk, making it difficult to move.
Rigid muscles. Muscle stiffness may occur in any part of your body. The stiff muscles can limit your range of motion and cause you pain.
Impaired posture and balance. Your posture may become stooped, or you may have balance problems as a result of Parkinson’s disease.
Loss of automatic movements. In Parkinson’s disease, you may have a decreased ability to perform unconscious movements, including blinking, smiling or swinging your arms when you walk. You may no longer gesture when talking.
Speech changes. You may have speech problems as a result of Parkinson’s disease. You may speak softly, quickly, slur or hesitate before talking. Your speech may be more of a monotone rather than with the usual inflections. A speech-language pathologist may help improve your speech problems.
Writing changes. Writing may appear small and become difficult.
Medications may greatly reduce many of these symptoms. These medications increase or substitute for dopamine, a specific signaling chemical (neurotransmitter) in your brain. People with Parkinson’s disease have low brain dopamine concentrations.
Parkinson’s disease symptoms and signs may vary from person to person. Early signs may be mild and may go unnoticed. Symptoms often begin on one side of your body and usually remain worse on that side, even after symptoms begin to affect both sides.
Parkinson’s signs and symptoms may include:
Tremor. Your tremor, or shaking, usually begins in a limb, often your hand or fingers. You may notice a back-and-forth rubbing of your thumb and forefinger known as a pill-rolling tremor. One characteristic of Parkinson’s disease is a tremor of your hand when it is relaxed (at rest).
Slowed movement (bradykinesia). Over time, Parkinson’s disease may reduce your ability to move and slow your movement, making simple tasks difficult and time-consuming. Your steps may become shorter when you walk, or you may find it difficult to get out of a chair. Also, you may drag your feet as you try to walk, making it difficult to move.
Rigid muscles. Muscle stiffness may occur in any part of your body. The stiff muscles can limit your range of motion and cause you pain.
Impaired posture and balance. Your posture may become stooped, or you may have balance problems as a result of Parkinson’s disease.
Loss of automatic movements. In Parkinson’s disease, you may have a decreased ability to perform unconscious movements, including blinking, smiling or swinging your arms when you walk. You may no longer gesture when talking.
Speech changes. You may have speech problems as a result of Parkinson’s disease. You may speak softly, quickly, slur or hesitate before talking. Your speech may be more of a monotone rather than with the usual inflections. A speech-language pathologist may help improve your speech problems.
Writing changes. Writing may appear small and become difficult.
Medications may greatly reduce many of these symptoms. These medications increase or substitute for dopamine, a specific signaling chemical (neurotransmitter) in your brain. People with Parkinson’s disease have low brain dopamine concentrations.






WHAT CAUSES PARKINSON’S DISEASE?

A substance called dopamine acts as a messenger between two brain areas – the substantia nigra and the corpus striatum – to produce smooth, controlled movements. Most of the movement-related symptoms of Parkinson’s disease are caused by a lack of dopamine due to the loss of dopamine-producing cells in the substantia nigra. When the amount of dopamine is too low, communication between the substantia nigra and corpus striatum becomes ineffective, and movement becomes impaired; the greater the loss of dopamine, the worse the movement-related symptoms. Other cells in the brain also degenerate to some degree and may contribute to non-movement related symptoms of Parkinson’s disease.
Although it is well known that lack of dopamine causes the motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease, it is not clear why the dopamine-producing brain cells deteriorate. Genetic and pathological studies have revealed that various dysfunctional cellular processes, inflammation, and stress can all contribute to cell damage. In addition, abnormal clumps called Lewy bodies, which contain the protein alpha-synuclein, are found in many brain cells of individuals with Parkinson’s disease. The function of these clumps in regards to Parkinson’s disease is not understood. In general, scientists suspect that dopamine loss is due to a combination of genetic and environmental factors.






CAN HORMONES MAKE YOU HAPPY?

The feelings we experience are nothing more than chemical reactions taking place inside our bodies. Each and every emotion we experience is a the result of the release of certain hormones inside our bodies. Some hormones are responsible for making us feel good, some are responsible for making us feel bad while some others are responsible for the feelings we get when we fall in love with someone.
The important question now is, can someone become happy if he alerted these hormones inside his body?
Yes that will certainly work however you must put in mind that unless you deal with the root cause of your problems your happiness won’t last for prolonged periods.
For example if you had a fight with your best friend then doing any of the actions that stimulate the release of happiness hormones might help you feel good for a short period of time but in the end your bad feelings will return.
So if the hormones won’t help you feel good for prolonged periods of time then why its still recommended that you learn how to tweak them?
Simply because they can help you ease your pain and feel better until you deal with your problems.
Hormones that make you happy-
-Serotonin: Serotonin is sometimes called the happiness hormone. Serotonin regulates the mood, prevents depression and makes you feel happy. Serotonin can be released by getting exposed to sunlight, by eating foods rich in carbohydrates and by exercising.
-Endorphins: Endorphins can make you feel good, reduce your anxiety and your sensitivity to pain. Endorphins are released by exercising
-Dopamine: Dopamine helps you to feel mentally alert. The lack of it might cause lack of attention, lack of concentration and bad moods. Dopamine can be released by eating foods that are rich in protein.
-Phenylethamine: Phenylethamine is the hormone that results in the feelings we get in the early stages of a relationship. Cocoa beans contain Phenylethamine. eating chocolate might be helpful too.
-Ghrelin: Gherlin is a hormone that reduces stress and can help you become more relaxed. Ghrelin is released when we become Hungary that’s why eating too much is not always a good idea. Just eat according to your body’s needs and never fill your stomach completely in order to maintain good Ghrelin levels






ENDORPHINS: KEY TO NATURAL HAPPINESS

Scientists believe that endorphins and pain are connected because the body releases endorphins to help combat the effects of physical pain and stress. These neurotransmitters have an effect on the brain that is often compared to that of morphine or other opiate drugs, in that endorphins and opiate drugs affect the same receptors in the brain. Endorphins and pain are connected because pain can cause the release of endorphins in the brain, but other activities are also believed to release endorphins. Laughter, physical contact with loved ones, sex, childbirth, strenuous exercise, and eating certain foods are also believed to cause the release of endorphins. Experts believe that endorphins can help people bond with one another, overcome physical and mental fatigue, and cope with extreme pain.
Not everyone releases the same amounts of endorphins with the same amounts of stimulus. Of all possible stimuli for the release of these neurotransmitters, endorphins and pain are usually most strongly linked. It is believed that the primary function of endorphins is to attach themselves to the brain’s opioid receptors, dampening feelings of physical pain. At the same time, endorphins can also enhance feelings of well-being and pleasure. They typically do this by stifling neural activity in the cerebral cortex and thalamus regions of the brain. These regions of the brain are considered responsible for registering feelings of physical pain, so that when activity there is diminished, levels of the feel-good neurotransmitter dopamine rise in the area.
The brain’s release of endorphins can cause feelings of calm and euphoria. Immunity may be strengthened, appetite may change, and the hormones that regulate sex drive may become more balanced. The connection between endorphins and pain has been implicated in several well-known phenomena, including the mother’s ability to endure the pain of childbirth and the feelings of well-being one may experience after strenuous physical exercise.






INCREASE DOPAMINE: NATURAL HAPPINESS!

Dopamine is neurotransmitter in the brain that plays vital roles in a variety of different behaviors. The major behaviors dopamine affects are movement, cognition, pleasure, and motivation. It is triggered during a variety of activities including food, sex, happiness, addiction (drugs, caffeine), pleasure, pain, motivation and gambling.
The reason Dopamine is critical is it allows us to manage our sensation-seeking mind and allow us to experience genuine pleasure rather than an image of happiness that is unattainable (addiction to foods, drugs, sex or gambling)
Increase Dopamine Through Diet, Exercise and Adequate Sleep.
-Eat foods rich in tyrosine. Almonds, avocados, bananas, low-fat dairy, lima beans, sesame seeds and pumpkin seeds may all help your body to produce more dopamine.
-Increase your intake of antioxidants. Dopamine is easy to oxidize, and antioxidants may reduce free radical damage to the brain cells that produce dopamine. Many fruits and vegetables are rich in antioxidants.
Exercise regularly. Exercise increases blood calcium, which stimulates dopamine production and uptake in your brain. Try 30 to 60 minutes of walking, swimming or jogging to jump-start your dopamine.
-Get plenty of sleep. Your brain uses very little dopamine while you sleep, which helps you to build up your supply naturally for the next day. Get at least 8 hours of sleep per night.






WHAT ARE DOPAMINE AGONISTS?

Dopamine agonists are drugs that do not convert to dopamine in the brain, but instead mimic the effect of dopamine on the brain. Dopamine agonists supplement function that has been lost as dopamine-producing neurons die.
While some dopamine agonists have been around for years, new dopamine agonists have been developed that attempt to better manage side effects.
Dopamine agonists can be used alone or in combination with Levodopa/Carbidopa.
Pros
Dopamine agonists cause motor fluctuations, including dyskinesias, less frequently than Levodopa/Carbidopa.
No protein effects as seen with Levodopa/Carbidopa.
Agonists offer potential for alternate forms of delivery (such as a skin patch) that may offer certain advantages over oral administration.
Cons and Complications
Dopamine agonists have not been shown to slow the progression of the disease.
Dopamine agonists are not as effective as Levodopa/Carbidopa for the treatment of motor symptoms.
They may also cause other side effects including daytime sleepiness, sudden unanticipated sleep (“sleep attacks”), hallucinations and risk-taking behavior, such as gambling and sexual obsessions.
Not effective at treating all symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. Posture, depression and cognitive problems are not responsive to dopamine agonists.






Revolutionary Treatment for Parkinson’s

UK scientists believe they created a groundbreaking form of therapy that could revolutionize the way Parkinson’s disease is treated.
One of the patients involved in the gene-therapy trial, Sheila Roy, says it was like turning back the clock 10 years.

She is one of only 15 people worldwide to have had the new treatment, which effectively creates a medicine factory in her brain.
Parkinson’s disease occurs when the brain gradually stops producing the nerve-controlling chemical dopamine. Over time, symptoms such as tremors, slow movement and stiffness get worse.
ProSavin, the new treatment, uses a “stripped-down” virus to transport dopamine-making genes into the brain. It is injected into a region called the striatum that helps control movement.
Once the virus gets into the brain cells, it reprograms them to gradually start producing their own dopamine.